1. 文頭のつなぎ表現

  • As a consequence, (結果として、実質的には、)
  • As for ~, (~としては)
  • As it happens, (たまたま、偶然にも、)
  • As mentioned earlier, (前述の通り、)
  • As you (can) see, … (ご覧のとおり、…)
  • Chanses are, (たぶん、… だろう)
  • How can I say … (何と言ったらいいか…) ※言葉に詰まったときのつなぎ
  • If we think that S+V (もし S+V と考えるなら)
  • In many cases, (多くの場合、)
  • In the end, (結局、)
  • Practically speacking, (事実上は、)
  • To begin, (初めに、)
  • To put it another way, … (別の言い方をすると、)
  • Whether S+V, … (S+V であろうとなかろうと)
  • With this in mind, … (これを念頭に置き、…)
  • case の使用例(1) In cases where S+V, … (S+V の場合には、…)
  • case の使用例(2) In some cases, … (場合によっては、…)


In a nutshel,
In the simplest terms,
To be brief,

「~以外」は、except for ~ か、except ~ か

文頭では Except for ~, の形になります。

Except for him, no one asked me about it.
彼以外は、 誰も私にそのことを聞かなかった。

後ろに in/at/on などの前置詞が続くときは、except を単体で使います。

The weather was good nationwide except in Hokkaido.

後ろに文章 (S+V) が続くときも、except を単体で使います。

I would buy it except (that) it is too expensive.

As a rule, (一般に、通常、)

As a rule, use a sequence whenever you have a chain of operations on a large collection.─ Kotlin in Action
She is, as a rule, on time for work each day.─ 英辞郎

Usually と同じ感じで使えるかな?

Along the way, (道中で、その進行の途中で、)

Along the way, we’ll give you an example of declaring enums in Kotlin and discuss the concept of smart casts.─ Kotlin in Action

With ~, (~においては、)

With many manufactured products, you can’t see the original material anymore.─ 週刊ST

As far as I know, (私の知る限り、)

As far as I know, he is innocent.
As far as I know, he is still single.

Despite 【名】, (【名詞】にもかかわらず、)

Despite their differing natures, …─ O'Reilly - JavaScript Graphics
Despite a cold rain, …
Despite a lack of experience, …

For clarity, (明確にするために)

For clarity and convenience, the unchanging constants appear in all uppercase.─ O'Reilly - JavaScript Graphics

Think of it as ~ (~と考えてみてください)

Think of it as high-altitude training: if we can create something good with just DHTML, we are equipped to create something even better using Canvas.─ O'Reilly - JavaScript Graphics
Think of it as a good chance to know each other better.─ 英辞郎

Alternatively, (あるいは、別の方法としては、)

Alternatively, the application could choose an appropriate drawing method based on the browser’s capabilities.─ O'Reilly - JavaScript Graphics

For the sake of ~, (~のために、~の目的で、)

For the sake of compatibility, we’ll avoid the latest bleeding-edge developments in the language and instead focus on the effective use of core JavaScript.─ O'Reilly JavaScript Graphics

Broadly speaking, ~ (大まかに言って、)

Very broadly speaking, here’s the pseudocode for a linear classification program implemented in tf.estimator:
Broadly speaking, the women in that country are poorly treated.─ 英辞郎
Broadly speaking the short words are the best, and the old words best of all.─ イギリスの政治家Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) の名言

Speaking of ~, / Talking of ~, (~と言えば、)

Speaking of food, I’m sure you know that Japan imports a large percentage of its food.─ 週刊ST
Speaking of music, do you play any instrument?─ Weblio
Speaking of bad company management, did you hear about Yukijirushi?─ 英辞郎

Of course, / Natulally, (当然ながら、もちろん、)

Naturally, not all responses are positive.─ 週刊ST2007-12-20


  • On the whole,
  • As a whole,
  • Totally,
  • Wholly,


  • Originally,
  • In the beginning,

簡単に言えば (Simply put, —)

Simply put, we don’t know if it’s gonna work.─ 映画『Sunshine 2057』
簡単に言えば、 それが思った通りの効果を収めるかどうかは分からないんだ。

~とは違い、(Unlike —, )

Unlike a partial, a block doesn’t have one specific layout or format.─ Hugo document
Unlike a TV show, for example, our readership isn’t tabulated.─ 週刊ST
TV 番組とは異なり、例えば、私たちの読者数は集計されていません。

readership(読者数)と leadership(リーダーシップ)を混同しないように注意。

理由はどうであれ、(Whatever the reason (is),)

Whatever the reason, I can’t stop using lip balm.─ 週刊ST
Whatever the reason is, you shouldn’t hit anyone.─ 英辞郎
Whatever the reason, the fact remains that S+V.

後ろの is は、付けることも付けないことも普通にあるようです。 is をつけて言う場合は、is の部分を強調して言います。

Even with ~, (~を持ってしても、)

Even with this improvement,
Even with the use of …,

as you might expect (ご察しの通り、ご推察の通り、案の定)


The state api managed the state of the bot as you might expect; things like the user data, the conversation data, the dialog data etc.─ stack overflow
As you might expect, the count() method returns the number of occurrences of a specific value in a list.─ Dive into Python 3